Denver, Colorado Springs, and Aurora all appear on this year's list of America's Most Literate Cities.
For 13 years, Dr. Jack Miller, the President Emeritus of Central Connecticut State University in New Britain, Connecticut, has been studying the data to rank the country's most literate cities. Miller takes the United States' largest cities and ranks them according using a pre-determined set of literacy variables.
“Being literate involves far more than being able to read,” Miller said in a press release. “It involves actually reading." Simply measuring educational levels is insufficient, in his mind. He looks specifically to how much a community values reading and learning.
That is why Miller's study focuses on variables such as the number of local bookstores in a city, the extent of Internet and library resources, local newspaper circulation totals, as well as the population's educational levels.
This year, three Colorado cities made the list of the United States' Most Literate Cities: Denver, Colorado Springs, and Aurora.
All three cities appeared in the previous 2015 survey, however their rankings have changed since then. Two years ago, Denver was ranked #7. This year, the Mile High City has slipped to #10 after being surpassed by San Francisco, Cincinnati, and Boston.
In 2015, Colorado Springs was ranked 32 out of 77. Today, Colorado Springs is ranked 22 out of 82, a significant improvement. The Springs even beat out major cities like New York, Philadelphia, and Dallas.
The city of Aurora also gained seven spots in this year's rankings, moving from 69th in 2015 up to 62nd in 2017.
Since the survey only focuses on ranking the nation's largest cities, Colorado cities like Boulder are deliberately left off the list. Had Boulder been included, it likely would have ranked well.
Here are the full 2017 rankings of the United States' Most Literate Cities.
1. Washington, DC 2. Seattle, Washington 3. Minneapolis, Minnesota 4. Atlanta, Georgia 5. San Francisco, California 6. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 7. Portland, Oregon 8. Cincinnati, Ohio 9. St. Paul, Minnesota 10. Boston, Massachusetts 11. Denver, Colorado
12. St. Louis, Missouri 13. Raleigh, North Carolina 14. Nashville-Davidson, Tennessee 15. Durham, North Carolina 16. Kansas City, Missouri 17. Austin, Texas 18. Honolulu, Hawaii 19. Lexington-Fayette, Kentucky 20. Colorado Springs, Colorado 21. Cleveland, Ohio 22. Chicago, Illinois 23. Columbus, Ohio 24. Lincoln, Nebraska 25.5 New Orleans, Louisiana 25.5. Tulsa, Oklahoma 27. Orlando, Florida 28. New York, New York 29. Indianapolis, Indiana 30. Oakland, California 31. Baltimore, Maryland 32. San Diego, California 33.5. Omaha, Nebraska 33.5 Plano, Texas 35. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 36. Irvine, California 37. St. Petersburg, Florida 38. Greensboro, North Carolina 39. Sacramento, California 40. Louisville-Jefferson Co., Kentucky 41. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 42. Dallas, Texas 43. Virginia Beach, Virginia 44. Charlotte, North Carolina 45.5. Albuquerque, New Mexico 45.5. Buffalo, New York 47. Milwaukee, Wisconsin 48. Newark, New Jersey 49. Fort Wayne, Indiana 50. Miami, Florida 51. Tampa, Florida 52. San Jose, California 53. Tucson, Arizona 54. Anchorage, Alaska 55. Jacksonville, Florida 56. Toledo, Ohio 57. Detroit, Michigan 58. Las Vegas, Nevada 59. Santa Ana, California 60. Jersey City, New Jersey 61. Wichita, Kansas 62. Aurora, Colorado 63. Chandler, Arizona 64. Fort Worth, Texas 65. Phoenix, Arizona 66.5. Arlington, Texas 66.5. Memphis, Tennessee 68. Los Angeles, California 69. Riverside, California 70. Houston, Texas 71. Henderson, Nevada 72. Long Beach, California 73. Mesa, Arizona 74. Chula Vista, California 75. Fresno, California 76. San Antonio, Texas 77. Corpus Christi, Texas 78. Anaheim, California 79. Stockton, California 80. El Paso, Texas 81. Bakersfield, California 82. Laredo, Texas